The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower pelvis. Its main job is to store urine, and its flexible, muscular walls are lined with urothelial cells. Bladder cancer begins when healthy cells change and grow out of control, forming a tumor. Cancer that develops in the renal pelvis and ureters is also considered a type of bladder cancer and is often called upper tract bladder cancer.
The kidneys filter blood to remove impurities, excess minerals and salts, and extra water. They also produce hormones that help control blood pressure, red blood cell production, and other bodily functions.
The penis consists of three chambers of spongy tissue that contain smooth muscle and many blood vessels and nerves. The corpora cavernosa form two chambers located on both sides of the upper part of the penis. The corpus spongiosum is located below the corpora cavernosa and surrounds the urethra. At the tip of the penis, the corpora cavernosa expands to form the head of the penis, or glans. Each type of penile tissue contains several types of cells, in which different types of penile cancer can form. However, almost all penile cancers start in skin cells of the penis.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States. Some prostate cancers grow very slowly and may not cause symptoms or problems for years or ever. Even advanced prostate cancer can be managed with good health and quality of life for a long time. But other prostate cancers are more aggressive. Monitoring for tumor growth is an important part of managing this disease. Screening is done with a blood test that measures prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
The testicles (also called testes or gonads) are located under the penis in a sac-like pouch called the scrotum. They produce male hormones (androgens) such as testosterone, and they make sperm, the male cells needed to fertilize a female egg cell to start a pregnancy. Most types of testicular cancer develop in the sperm-producing cells known as germ cells. Testicular cancer is almost always curable if found early, and it is usually curable even when found at a later stage.